Chandrayaan-3 Lunar Landing: India’s Historic Achievement

India Touches the Moon: A Milestone in Space Exploration with Chandrayaan-3

by Abdul Rauf
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Chandrayaan 3 Mission of India

The Chandrayaan-3 mission by India signifies a bold step towards exploring the lunar South Pole and unlocking its water ice resources. With its sights set on potential moon colonization and further space exploration, this mission showcases India’s determination to push the boundaries of space exploration. This article delves into the mission’s objectives, significance, technical details, and the lessons learned from previous attempts, highlighting India’s burgeoning prominence in the global space arena.


Chandrayaan-3 mission of India:


Chandrayaan 3


Exploring the Lunar South Pole and Water Ice Prospects

The Chandrayaan-3 mission is a significant endeavor by India, targeting the lunar South Pole, an area known to contain water ice, a valuable resource for potential future lunar missions, and the establishment of a sustained moon colony. This mission holds the potential to unlock oxygen, fuel, and water resources vital for further space exploration.

Mission Objectives and Significance

Chandrayaan-3 aims to land successfully in the challenging lunar South Pole region, where frozen water resources are suspected to be present. The mission’s primary significance lies in potentially utilizing these water ice deposits for various purposes, including sustaining human life and fueling further space exploration activities.

Operational Scope and Scientific Experiments

Upon successful landing, Chandrayaan-3 is expected to operate effectively for a span of two weeks. During this operational window, the mission is slated to conduct a series of crucial experiments. One notable experiment involves the utilization of a spectrometer to analyze the mineral composition of the lunar surface. This analysis could provide insights into the moon’s geological history and shed light on its formation and evolution.

Lander and Rover Specifications

The Chandrayaan-3 lander is approximately 2 meters tall and boasts a mass of slightly over 1,700 kg, comparable to a standard SUV’s weight. This well-engineered lander is equipped to carry out its intended tasks with precision. Additionally, the mission includes a compact lunar rover weighing 26 kg, which will be deployed from the lander. The rover is expected to traverse the lunar surface, collecting valuable data and contributing to our understanding of the moon’s composition.


What is the projected landing date and when did

Chandrayaan 3 launch?


Chandrayaan 3

Chandrayaan 3

Launch and Initial Orbits 

On July 14, the Chandrayaan-3 mission embarked on its journey from India’s primary spaceport in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh. With a strategic plan in place, the spacecraft embarked on a series of orbits around Earth. These orbits progressively expanded in range, laying the groundwork for the mission’s ultimate lunar objective.

Transfer to the Lunar Orbit of Chandrayaan 3 

After completing its orbits around Earth, Chandrayaan-3 executed a critical maneuver to transition into a lunar orbit. This significant step marked a pivotal phase in the mission, bringing the spacecraft closer to its destination: the moon. As it settled into lunar orbit, anticipation and excitement grew both nationally and internationally.

National Pride and Global Interest of Chandrayaan 3 

Chandrayaan-3’s journey to the moon captured the attention and pride of the nation, fostering a sense of unity and accomplishment among Indians. This endeavor also attracted global interest, particularly in the wake of Russia’s unsuccessful attempt to secure a lunar landing before India. The mission’s progress underscored India’s growing prowess in space exploration.

The Ascent to the Moon’s South Pole 

The culmination of Chandrayaan-3’s mission is set to occur on Wednesday, with an anticipated landing time of about 1804 IST (1234 GMT). The chosen landing site is the moon’s South Pole, a location of immense scientific significance due to its unique terrain and potential resources. The planned landing represents a remarkable feat of engineering and determination, aiming to add another achievement to India’s growing space exploration legacy. Through meticulous planning, technical prowess, and unwavering determination, Chandrayaan-3’s journey from its launch to its impending lunar landing stands as a testament to India’s commitment to pushing the boundaries of space exploration.


What became of ISRO’s previous lunar landing attempt?

ISRO’s Ambition: Lunar South Pole Landing

In 2019, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) made an ambitious attempt to achieve a lunar South Pole landing, aiming for a historic milestone. However, this endeavor did not culminate as anticipated.

Chandrayaan-2’s Mixed Results

During the Chandrayaan-2 mission, a significant milestone was achieved with the successful deployment of an orbiter. This achievement demonstrated ISRO’s capability to reach the lunar vicinity. Regrettably, the same mission faced a setback as the lander and rover met an unfortunate fate.

Setback Amidst Hope: Crash Near Chandrayaan-3’s Target Zone

The lander and rover of Chandrayaan-2 encountered a mishap, crashing in proximity to the area designated for Chandrayaan-3’s potential touchdown. This incident brought to light the challenges posed by the rough terrain of the lunar South Pole.

ISRO’s Persistence: Enhancing Prospects for Success

Undeterred by the setback, ISRO’s scientists have worked diligently to improve the odds of a successful lunar landing. Notable adjustments have been made to enhance the mission’s chances.

  1. Expanding the Landing Zone: One significant modification involves broadening the potential landing zone, allowing for more flexibility in choosing a suitable landing site.
  2. Strengthened Lander: The lander itself has undergone improvements. Its structure has been fortified with sturdier legs, reinforcing its ability to endure the impact of landing.
  3. Ample Fuel Reserves: Another crucial enhancement pertains to the lander’s fuel capacity. Additional fuel has been supplied to ensure a more controlled landing process.


Learning from Setbacks: Russia’s Luna-25 Incident

ISRO isn’t the only space agency to encounter lunar landing challenges. In a recent event, Russia faced a similar setback. The Luna-25 spacecraft, a significant milestone in Russia’s space endeavors, met an untimely end when it crashed into the lunar surface. This incident underscores the complexities involved in successful lunar landings.

Private Sector Ventures: Ispace’s Lunar Landing Attempt

The aspiration for lunar exploration isn’t confined to national space agencies alone. The private sector has also ventured into this challenging domain. In April, Ispace, a Japanese space startup, attempted a lunar landing. Unfortunately, this attempt failed, illustrating the formidable obstacles in achieving a successful landing on the moon.


What does the mission’s success translate to?

Anticipation and Excitement in India for Planned Moon Landing 

Feverish enthusiasm sweeps India as it eagerly awaits the upcoming lunar landing mission. Temples, mosques, and churches reverberate with prayers, while schools prepare to engage students through live telecasts. Space enthusiasts are even arranging celebratory gatherings, underscoring the nationwide fervor for the event.

Significance of a Successful Mission 

A successful lunar landing would position India as the fourth nation to achieve this feat, joining the ranks of the former USSR, the United States, and China. This accomplishment aligns remarkably with India’s impending national elections, potentially amplifying its status as a burgeoning space power on the global stage.

Political Implications and Strategic Goals 

Against the backdrop of looming national elections, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s administration eyes the mission’s success as a catalyst for multiple strategic agendas. One such objective is to invigorate investments in private space ventures and associated satellite-based enterprises. By doing so, India aims to stimulate growth in its private space sector, aspiring to quintuple its share in the global launch market within the next ten years.

Prime Minister Modi’s Vision 

Prime Minister Modi, at the launch of the moon mission, heralded the event as a pivotal moment in India’s space narrative. He characterized the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) as scripting a novel chapter in the nation’s space saga, thereby elevating the aspirations of every Indian citizen.

Broadcasting the Historic Landing 

ISRO plans to televise the lunar landing, commencing at 1720 Indian Standard Time (1150 Greenwich Mean Time) on Wednesday. This broadcast promises to captivate the nation and potentially the world, marking another milestone in India’s journey through the cosmos.


India’s Ascension as a Space Power

Geopolitical Recognition for India’s Space Prowess

In recent times, India has emerged as a significant contender in the realm of space geopolitics, garnering increasing recognition for its achievements and capabilities.


Bilateral Collaboration with the United States

During a pivotal visit in June, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi engaged in strategic talks with U.S. President Joe Biden, resulting in the signing of crucial agreements. Notably, India committed to joining the Artemis Accords, a move that underlines its expanding influence in space exploration. The discussions also revolved around enhanced cooperation between two prominent space agencies, ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) and NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).


Milestone: Indian Astronauts Set to Journey to the ISS

A significant milestone on the horizon is the collaborative effort between ISRO and NASA to facilitate Indian astronauts’ journey to the International Space Station (ISS). This joint endeavor, planned for the upcoming year, exemplifies the deepening partnership between the two nations in the realm of space exploration.

Efficiency and Fiscal Prudence

India’s accomplishments in space exploration are remarkable not only for their scientific significance but also for their fiscal efficiency. ISRO has consistently achieved remarkable results with a fraction of the budget that major global counterparts, like NASA, command.

Exemplary Chandrayaan-3 Mission

A prime example of India’s efficient approach is the Chandrayaan-3 mission. Despite its modest budget, estimated at around $75 million in 2020, ISRO demonstrated remarkable capabilities. The mission, originally slated for launch in 2021, faced delays due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, showcasing India’s ability to adapt and overcome unforeseen challenges.

Global Recognition and Collaboration

ISRO’s accomplishments have garnered international applause, with even NASA Administrator Bill Nelson taking to social media platform X (formerly known as Twitter) to offer congratulations. His message also underscored the partnership between the two space agencies, affirming NASA’s pride in collaborating with ISRO on this ambitious mission.

A Promising Trajectory

India’s trajectory as a rising space power is undoubtedly impressive. Its strategic collaborations, fiscal prudence, and commitment to innovation position the nation as a force to be reckoned with in the global space arena.


In its pursuit of lunar exploration, India’s Chandrayaan-3 mission holds immense promise. With advancements built upon lessons from previous setbacks, the mission’s success would mark India’s entry into an elite group of lunar explorers. This accomplishment aligns with India’s strategic goals, geopolitical recognition, and efficient space endeavors. As anticipation builds for the historic lunar landing, India’s ascent as a space power stands as a testament to its innovation, collaboration, and unwavering determination on the cosmic frontier.

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